The educational level of the population is one of the main indicators of the quality of human resources. In the period 1998-2004, the educational structure of the population up to 64 years of age continued to improve, following a clear trend of increasing the number and share of the population with tertiary and secondary education.
The publication contains data and details provided by PM.MBA. All data, values, and statistics are known to be yet valid for 2020.
A comparison of the educational structures of the population of the 15 countries of the European Union for 2002 and of Bulgaria shows that the level of the human capital in Europe as a whole is slightly above the average for these countries. Among the population, aged 25-64 in the country, the relative share of persons with tertiary education is 22%, as is the average share for the 15 countries of the European Union. With a 38% share of the population with primary and lower education on average in the 15 countries of the European Union, for Bulgaria, this share is 28%. In the 15 countries of the European Union, the proportion of persons with secondary education is 41%, and for our country, this share is higher than 50%. The proportion of the population with tertiary education increased from 18% in 2000 to 22% in 2004, or by four percentage points from 32% to 28%, which means that 72% of the population in the most active age employment is with secondary or higher education, which is evidence of an excellent educational level of the population.
According to Eurostat data, the share of people aged 20-24 who have no less than 76% of secondary education in Bulgaria in 2004 is relatively good and close to the European average. The worrying fact is that 21.4% of the population aged 18-24 is lower than secondary education and does not intend to pursue further education or training, which means that these young people are entering their working careers with weak competitive positions in the labor market. This predetermines the need for measures to reintegrate these people into the education system and to integrate them into various vocational training courses, which will increase the quality of their employment and their job opportunities.
Range of education levels
From 1990/1991 to 2004/2005, the number of children enrolled in the pre-school sector decreased by 100 976 or 33%. The persistent downward trend was overcome in the 2002/2003 school year when there was an increase of 2,111 children in kindergartens compared to the previous year. In the last two years, the number of children in pre-school education has increased, and for the last school year, there has been an increase in the number of children enrolled by 1 658. According to NSI data, the number of children in half-day kindergartens increased by 7.8% in 2004 compared to 2004. the previous 2003, with the coverage of children estimated by the group net enrollment rate, increased from 66.8% in 2000 to 73.6% in 2004.
The lowest is the dropout rate in the initial stage of primary education.
In 2004-2005, enrollment in the initial stage of primary education (grade 1), according to NSI data, reached 99.7%. About 2.54% do not complete this stage. This means that the problem of dropping out of school is still at the first level of inclusion in the education system, although not as pronounced as in the following stages. Compulsory preparation prior to enrollment in first grade also plays a positive role in attracting and retaining children in school. Serious preparation is needed for starting a school to overcome the crisis in the first and second grades, especially from minorities before entering the first grade to master literary language, mastering social habits, communication skills, and more. They place themselves on an equal footing with other children.
In upper secondary education, the enrollment rate and the proportion of graduates retain relatively stable levels over the years with a slight increase in the last two academic years 2003-2004, but the highest dropout rate is 3.03 5 at this educational stage and is higher than the national average. Its growth in recent years is a worrying fact because upper secondary education is part of compulsory education. Taking into account the fact that the strongest factor for access to employment is the degree of completed education or the importance of education for finding a job, this percentage of drop-out students must develop and propose alternative programs for continuing their education in connection with the opportunity for their future realization. Read about how students become managers easy today.
Enrollment rates in secondary education remain the lowest. In 2001, the level since the beginning of the transition had recovered, reaching 68.3% and continuing its gradual rise, with enrollment in secondary education reaching 78% in 2005-2006. However, this positive trend is compounded by the still high dropout rate in the high school stage of 2%.
According to data from the Regional Inspectorates of Education for the school year 2004/2005, 19,193 students dropped out of a total of 963,051 enrolled at the beginning, ie 0.12% of the total.
The highest dropout rate for family reasons was 6,664 or 34.7% and 10.6% less than in the previous year. The high dropout rate due to family reasons is explained by the place of education in the family’s value system, economic instability, resulting in unemployment, poverty of the family and lack of funds to provide textbooks, teaching aids, notebooks, clothes for students from the family, the need for labor to provide for the livelihood of the family.
Dropout students due to a reluctance to study, including poor achievement and absenteeism were 5,471 or 28.5% of the total dropout rate, up from 25.7% the previous year. The reasons for this can be found in difficulties in learning the content, due to poor command of the Bulgarian language, difficulties caused by the high academic style of textbooks and teaching aids, lack of thorough preparation and motivation for learning, poor use of interactive methods аnd approaches to training and implementation of new technologies, insufficient training of teachers to work in a changing environment, the need to upgrade their skills.
The reasons for dropping out of school can be grouped into several groups:
Economically low family income, unemployed parents, declining living standards, commercialization of education, etc. Read the How MBA (Master of Business Administration) education can boost our careers article in ManagersPost.
Social parental disinterest, lack of control by the family, negative environmental impact, poor living conditions, the influence of various criminogenic factors, etc.
Pedagogical lack of motivation for learning, negative attitude to school, difficulties in communication with teachers and classmates, personality traits, etc.
Culturally, they derive from the traditions, customs, character of the value system of different social groups, and ethnic groups.
Organizational administrative lack of sufficient and objective information, lack of a system for organizing the free belt and carrying out extracurricular and extracurricular activities, administrative-authoritarian approach to solving the problem, etc.
Statistics show differences in access to education in urban and rural areas
Statistics also show major differences in access to education in urban and rural areas. Of those enrolled, in 1996-1997, children in rural areas who completed primary education were about 17% less than children in urban areas. Particularly indicative is the index of completion of the upper secondary level of primary education, which for the years 1996-2001 increased in the cities by 1.9% but decreased in the villages by 6.7%.
In support of this trend, the Human Development Index (monitored by UNDP) from 2002 recognizes that remote municipalities and municipalities with a concentration of ethnic minorities are characterized by low literacy and enrollment rates. Roma children and students are still isolated and segregated in separate kindergartens and schools. The preparedness of the teaching staff and administrative units to work in a multicultural environment is insufficient. Read how you can build good educational and management habits for you and your children.
In terms of access to education, not only minority children but also children with special educational needs are at risk. According to the NSI data for the 2004-2005 school year, these are about 13 269 children studying in 127 special schools. The number of children with special needs is high. In most cases, they are institutionalized and remain isolated from the natural home environment.
Legislative provision of integrated education for children with special educational needs and Roma children is not sufficient for the actual implementation of the processes. No supportive environment has been created to guarantee equal access to education and quality education for children with special educational needs. It is positive that since the school year 2005-2006, 1 593 children and students with special educational needs have been integrated and educated in Bulgaria, supported by 227 resource teachers.